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Water management and governance under uncertainty: A mediterranean watershed case

UNDUE investigates the implications of uncertainty associated with water management and governance in the Mijares watershed (Spain), closely analyzing uncertainties associated with the recuperation of the water cycle. This project  is led by Marcela Brugnach and funded by the Spanish research agency, AEI*, and it is carried out by Noelia Zafra Calvo, Bosco Liso, Itxaso Ruiz, Jorge Peggi, Maria José Sanz at BC3, and the many involved stakeholders.

* ref. PID2020-114944RB-I00, financiado por la AEI en su convocatoria «Proyectos deI+D+i» 2020, en el marco del Programa Estatal de I+D+i Orientada a los Retos de la Sociedad. 

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This is a Dutch Research Council (NWO) funded project lead by Prof. K Wijnberg, University of Twente, Netherlands. In ReAshore we investigate the socio-bio-physical dynamics of anthropogenic sandy shores impacted by multi-functional, nature-based solutions (NBS). In doing so, we follow a Living Lab approach, documenting and analyzing interactions between evolving anthropogenic shores (Sand Motor and Hondsbossche Duinen) and people using and managing these NBS-modified landscapes.




Together with colleagues from CIRAD ( and IRSTEA (, we are developing experimental approaches of uncertainty analysis. Our aim is to explore the role of relationships among actors in determining the function of uncertainty in collective decision-making regarding resource dilemmas in water management. This work is published at:

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Co-producing out of differences: The case of Mar Menor

This is the post-doctoral research of Violeta Cabello, where she aims to develop a co-production process in the conflict around the eutrophication of the Mar Menor lagoon in Spain. By understanding and welcoming the different positions in the conflict, together with the knowledge they use and their emotional experiences, she aims at opening spaces for dialogue spaces that contribute to leveraging collective action.

Together with the University of Twente (Enschede, NL), with the artist collective Satellietgroep (den Haag, NL), and ArtEZ (Zwolle, NL) we facilitated learning experiences between engineering students from the University of Twente and art students from ArtEZ. Our goal was to explore how mixing the arts and engineering practices could change the way in which water challenges were addressed. This project was financed by the Andrea von Braun foundation (, and even though the project is now concluded, we strive to continue to develop a rigorous exploration of  the connections that art and sciences have and new ways these two disciplines can benefit from each other in university education.


Teaching Master of Sciences students educated in the hard sciences, how to design and implement participatory processes and collaborations for making decision choices, is far from easy. To do so, in my classes, I have combined  regular lectures with experiential learning methods. This publication presents a behavioral simulation a colleague of mine, Prof M Craps (KU Leuven, Belgium) and myself developed to study collaboration and conflict in natural resources management. The work presents our experience in the classroom with students from University of Twente, KU Leuven and a professional training course at the University of Cuenca, Ecuador. 

Front. Sustain., 23 July 2021 |


In this project, we explore how international students in Tokyo experience wellbeing in connection to urban biodiversity.  The project is led by Raquel  Moreno-Peñaranda (University of Tokyo, Japan), working in collaboration with Noelia Zafra Calvo and Marcela Brugnach, BC3. 


In these combined projects we link climate, society, water, crop productivity and remote sensing, to study issues of food security. This work integrates the development of indicators with applications in different study cases. Iran, Netherlands and Spain.

Collaboration with: Elnaz Neivaraz, Fatemeh Karandish, University of Twente, Hamideh Nouri, Gottingen University

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